Chapter 12 Assessment

A patient whose mental status can be described as​ “verbal” is able​ to:
A.
talk spontaneously and respond to the​ EMT’s questions.
B.
respond only to a stimulus such as the EMT rubbing his sternum with his knuckles.
C.
tell you his or her​ name, his or her​ location, and what day it is.
D.
respond to speaking or shouting by opening the eyes.
D
Which of the following presentations would be considered normal during the​ “Breathing” phase of the primary​ assessment?
A.
Respiratory rate of 12 with adequate depth
B.
Respiratory rate of 28 with adequate depth
C.
Respiratory rate of 6 with shallow depth
D.
Respiratory rate of 16 with altered mental status
A
Which of the following is the proper position for maintaining the airway in a child with a decreased level of​ consciousness?
A.
Using a cervical collar to keep the chin elevated
B.
Flexing the neck to place the chin on the chest
C.
Hyperextension of the neck
D.
Placing the head and neck in a neutral position
D
You care caring for a patient that looks at you as you approach. Which of the following represents the correct order of assessment for the EMT during the primary assessment from start to​ end?
A.
Patient​ priority, general​ impression, mental​ status, airway,​ breathing, circulation
B.
General​ impression, mental​ status, airway,​ breathing, circulation, patient priority
C.
Mental​ status, general​ impression, airway,​ breathing, circulation, patient priority
D.
None of the above
B
In the primary​ assessment, which of the following is NOT an acceptable method of assessing the​ patient’s circulatory​ status?
A.
Taking a blood pressure reading
B.
Assessing the​ patient’s skin color
C.
Checking a radial pulse
D.
Looking for serious bleeding
A
You are approaching a young adult male lying supine on the ground with his eyes closed. You should​ FIRST:
A.
expose his chest.
B.
feel for a pulse.
C.
open his airway.
D.
ask him if he is okay.
D
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Which of the following is completed first during the primary​ assessment?
A.
Assessing mental status
B.
Opening the airway
C.
Determining transport priority
D.
Forming a general impression
D
The mnemonic AVPU is used to evaluate which of the​ following?
A.
​Patient’s transport priority
B.
​Patient’s level of responsiveness
C.
​EMT’s general impression of the​ patient’s condition
D.
​Patient’s chief complaintQ
B
Which of the following findings is generally NOT used to assess an​ adult’s circulation?
A.
Evaluation for bleeding
B.
​Patient’s skin​ color, temperature, and condition
C.
​Patient’s distal pulse rate
D.
​Patient’s capillary refill time
D
Your partner is assessing a​ 55-year-old man who was found sitting on the tailgate of his truck after being involved in a motor vehicle collision. You should​ FIRST:
A.
lay the patient down in the truck bed.
B.
instruct the patient to stand up.
C.
assist the patient to the stretcher.
D.
manually immobilize the cervical spine.
D
Which of the following is the purpose of the primary​ assessment?
A.
To detect and treat immediately​ life-threatening problems
B.
To find all of the​ patient’s signs and symptoms
C.
To discover trends of improvement or deterioration in the​ patient’s condition
D.
To detect dangers to the patient​ and/or EMS crew
A
Which of the following is NOT assessed during the​ “Breathing” phase of the primary​ assessment?
A.
Obtaining a pulse oximetry reading
B.
Determining the presence of respirations
C.
Counting the respiratory rate
D.
Determining the depth of respiration
A
Your patient is a​ 72-year-old female who has​ “twisted her​ ankle” coming down some steps. She is alert and complaining of pain in her right​ ankle, but she jokes about her​ “clumsiness.” Which of the following should you do​ next?
A.
Administer​ high-concentration oxygen by nonrebreather mask.
B.
Determine the presence of a carotid pulse.
C.
Ask if the patient has pain anywhere besides her ankle.
D.
Take immediate manual control of the​ patient’s cervical spine.
C
You are approaching an adult female lying supine on the ground with snoring respirations. You should​ FIRST:
A.
insert an oropharyngeal airway.
B.
ventilate with a​ bag-valve mask.
C.
open her airway with a​ jaw-thrust maneuver.
D.
insert a nasopharyngeal airway.
C
Which of the following describes the chief​ complaint?
A.
Reason why the patient summoned EMS
B.
Events immediately preceding the call for EMS
C.
Overall impression of the​ patient’s condition
D.
All of the above
A
In​ EMS, what does mental status refer​ to?
A.
Any history of mental illness that the patient may have
B.
​Patient’s level of awareness of his surroundings
C.
​Patient’s general level of intelligence
D.
None of the above
B
Which of the following is true concerning the primary​ assessment?
A.
Manual airway maneuvers must be performed on all patients.
B.
External bleeding will be obvious as you enter the room and initially see the patient.
C.
The EMT should perform a sternal rub on all patients to test for response to painful stimuli.
D.
The primary assessment begins by just observing the patient as you enter the room.
D
Your patient is a​ 33-year-old man who has been ejected from his vehicle during a​ high-speed collision. During your primary assessment it is discovered that he is not​ moving, does not appear to have adequate​ respirations, and has suffered moderate external bleeding. Which of the following should be done​ first?
A.
Open the airway.
B.
Control the bleeding with direct pressure.
C.
Begin​ bag-valve-mask ventilations.
D.
Check the​ patient’s carotid pulse.
A
Your patient is a​ 42-year-old woman who fell two feet from a ladder and is complaining of pain in her ankle. Which of the following are you unable to determine from the information​ given?
A.
Airway status
B.
Chief complaint
C.
Transport priority
D.
General impression
C
Your patient is a​ middle-aged man who appears to be in distress and is clutching his chest. These observations lead you to suspect which type of​ problem?
A.
Anaphylaxis
B.
Choking
C.
Cardiac
D.
Digestive
C
Which of the following is the correct manner for checking for responsiveness in an apparently unresponsive​ infant?
A.
Shaking the child
B.
Rubbing the sternum with your knuckles
C.
Pinching the earlobe
D.
Flicking the soles of the feet
D
Which of the following techniques is used when formulating the general​ impression?
A.
Detecting odors
B.
Listening for unusual sounds
C.
Looking for visual clues
D.
All of the above
D
Which of the following differences should be expected when assessing a pediatric​ patient, as compared to the adult​ patient?
A.
The normal respiratory rate is faster.
B.
An​ adult’s tongue is proportionally larger than that of a child and should always be considered as a potential airway obstruction.
C.
The normal pulse rate is slower.
D.
Capillary refill is not as reliable an indicator of circulatory status.
A
Which of the following is a good indication of an occluded​ airway?
A.
The patient is crying loudly.
B.
The patient has snoring respirations.
C.
The patient is alert.
D.
The patient is speaking clearly.
B
What BEST defines the immediate sense of the​ patient’s degree of​ distress, formulated from the​ patient’s immediate​ environment, appearance, and chief​ complaint?
A.
Scene​ size-up
B.
Secondary assessment
C.
Primary assessment
D.
General impression
D
Which of the following indicates a possible circulatory​ problem?
A.
​Weak, thready pulse that is normal in rate
B.
Slow pulse
C.
Rapid pulse
D.
All of the above
D
You enter a room to find a​ 16-year-old female sitting upright in a chair with her back​ straight, leaning​ forward, and her arms supporting her. She is having a hard time talking to you. You should​ suspect:
A.
abdominal pain.
B.
respiratory distress.
C.
allergic reaction.
D.
chest discomfort.
B
You are at the scene where a​ 19-year-old female college student has been drinking large quantities of alcohol throughout the evening. On your​ arrival, the patient is lying on her back with no signs of​ trauma, has​ vomited, and has​ slow, wet sounding respirations. Which of the following should you do​ next?
A.
Check for carotid and radial pulses.
B.
Open the​ patient’s airway using a​ head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver.
C.
Assist respirations with a​ bag-valve-mask device.
D.
Determine the respiratory rate.
B
Which of the following questions will most likely illicit your​ patient’s chief​ complaint?
A.
What made you call 911 this​ evening?
B.
Do you have any medical​ problems?
C.
How have you been feeling​ lately?
D.
Have you been drinking​ today?
A
In​ EMS, which of the following BEST describes the term intervention​?
A.
Taking steps to correct a problem
B.
Determining if there is a problem
C.
Decreasing the​ EMT’s liability for negligence
D.
Creating a permanent record of patient care
A
You are approaching a​ 16-year-old male with bright red spurting blood coming from his leg. He is​ screaming, and he begs you to help him. You should​ FIRST:
A.
assess his airway.
B.
control the bleeding.
C.
apply oxygen.
D.
ask him to calm down.
B
Which of the following BEST describes an EMS​ provider’s “sixth​ sense”?
A.
Scene safety
B.
Diagnostic ability
C.
General impression
D.
Clinical judgment
D
You find a teenage male lying supine in his bedroom. You hear gurgling sounds from the​ patient’s mouth and see vomit with pill fragments on the floor. You should​ FIRST:
A.
suction the airway.
B.
ventilate with oxygen.
C.
perform chest thrusts.
D.
identify the pills.
A
Which of the following is true regarding a patient who has a mental status of less than​ “alert”?
A.
His brain may not be getting enough oxygen.
B.
His condition does not indicate the need for oxygen.
C.
He is likely in a state of REM sleep.
D.
He has adequate circulation.
A
Which of the following is NOT performed during the​ “Airway” phase of the primary​ assessment?
A.
Insertion of an oropharyngeal airway
B.
​Head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver
C.
Obtaining the respiratory rate
D.
Suctioning
C
Which of the following is NOT part of the general​ impression?
A.
Position in which the patient is found
B.
​Patient’s age and race
C.
​Patient’s facial expression
D.
​Patient’s past medical history
D
For which of the following patients would capillary refill be a reliable sign of circulatory​ status?
A.
​92-year-old man complaining of weakness on his right side
B.
​24-year-old homeless man who has spent the night outside in the rain
C.
​3-year-old child with a fever and cough
D.
​50-year-old woman complaining of chest pain
C
What is a normal capillary refill time in a pediatric​ patient?
A.
1 minute
B.
less than 2 seconds
C.
3 seconds
D.
5 seconds
B
You have arrived on the scene at a high school football field where a​ 17-year-old male is lying on the ground. He is unresponsive and​ cyanotic, and he is making obvious respiratory effort without moving adequate amounts of air. Which of the following should be done​ first?
A.
Insert a nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal airway.
B.
Open the​ patient’s airway using a manual maneuver.
C.
Assist ventilations with a​ bag-valve-mask device and supplemental oxygen.
D.
Apply​ high-concentration oxygen by nonrebreather mask.
B
During the primary assessment of a responsive adult​ patient, where should the pulse be​ checked?
A.
At the brachial artery
B.
At the femoral artery
C.
At the carotid artery
D.
At the radial artery
D
Which of the following is the most reliable means of determining whether a patient has any immediately​ life-threatening conditions?
A.
Obtaining a detailed medical history
B.
Use of intuition
C.
Systematic approach to assessment
D.
Thorough scene​ size-up
C
You find a​ middle-aged unresponsive man lying prone on the ground near a ladder. You should​ FIRST:
A.
manually immobilize his head.
B.
move the ladder out of the way.
C.
pick him up with a scoop stretcher.
D.
roll him over to a supine position.
A
During the primary assessment of an unresponsive​ two-month old​ infant, which pulse should be​ palpated?
A.
Brachial
B.
Radial
C.
Umbilical
D.
Carotid
A
Which of the following patients is a high priority for​ transport?
A.
Pediatric patient with abrasions to both knees from a fall
B.
High school student with dizziness after giving blood
C.
Adult female with knee pain
D.
Adult male with difficulty breathing
D
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